are a wide variety of enterprises involved in Community Based
Natural Resources Management, which are both instruments and
objectives for economic development. Crafts organisations
and tourism ventures are the most common enterprises for their
use of natural resources. Opportunities for veld and non-timber
forest products are being explored, but it is a challenge
to find internal and external markets and develop appropriate
harvesting and processing techniques.
Crafts co-operatives, for the Basarwa especially, provide
a small but important source of cash using an indigenous skill
base. Jewelry using ostrich eggshells and pods, leatherworks
and wood carvings are highly marketable for sale to tourists.
In /Xai-/Xai, !Kokoro Crafts is a loosely structured co-operative
which acts as a middleman, buying crafts and selling them
for the artisans. The structure is simple and accessible,
and its purpose straightforward. Used as a starter activity,
the process of decision-making and handling of earnings could
be observed prior to complex tourism ventures. Furthermore,
crafts groups usually have a higher percentage of female participants
- in /Xai-/Xai, 75% of the !Kokoro Crafts members are women
- and provide a crucial source of income for female-headed
Tourism activities can take many forms; a community can sub-lease
its wildlife-offtake quota to a hunting safari, tender resource-use
rights to a photographic tourism company or operate its own
cultural or eco-tourism. The first two options yield the most
overall earnings for the least amount of work. However, they
do not offer much autonomy, long-term employment growth or
managerial opportunity and bring into question the idea of
Community Based Natural Resources Management.
Instead, communities such as /Xai-/Xai and D'kar have opted
to take an active role in their development by self-operating
eco-tourism based on local culture and traditional knowledge.
The choice involves a great deal of mobilisation, training
and hard work, but for /Xai-/Xai and D'kar, employment creation
for both men and women, pride in their unique identity and
ability to make decisions and manage their own enterprise
are worthy of the cost.
Veld Products Research and Development and Thusano Lefatsheng
are local NGOs supported by SNV who have been exploring CBNRM
opportunities in veld products. Utilising veld products is
not as systematic and lucrative as wildlife utilisation, as
government regulations are not yet definitive and harvesting,
processing and marketing techniques are still being forged.
However, both NGOs have been buying harvests of sengaparile
(Devil's Claw), truffles, thatch grass and herbal teas and
assisting communities develop monitoring systems and explore